in U.S. Patent Application 20100093102,
The mesoporous materials developed by the Wisconsin researchers provide enrichment materials having large active surface areas that provide for higher loading capacities for phosphorylated peptides and proteins relative to conventional affinity based methods. Nanostructured metal oxide mesoporous enrichment materials are also compatible with implementation via a variety of separation platforms including flow through separation systems, elution based separation systems, column chromatography and affinity chromatography.
Research has demonstrated that a proteome is typically characterized by very dynamic behavior. For example, the types of proteins expressed by a cell, as well as their abundances, post-translational modifications and subcellular locations, vary substantially with the physiological condition of a cell or tissue, including the onset and progression of disease. Accordingly, quantitative characterization of changes in protein content, composition and activity at the organ, tissue, and cellular levels provide information useful for identifying new biological targets for drug development and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and early detection of disease. Furthermore, proteomics research is highly complementary to other functional approaches for understanding cellular and sub-cellular processes, such as microarray-based expression profiles, systems level genetics, and small molecule based arrays.
The complexity of proteomics, at least in part, is due to the large number of proteins and protein complexes corresponding to a genome. For example, the human proteome is expected to consist of between about 400,000 to about 1,000,000 proteins, which interact to form a huge number of protein-protein complexes important in regulating cellular behavior. The complexity of the human proteome is significantly compounded by the large dynamic range observed for protein expression, typically exceeding over six orders of magnitude, and by post-translational modifications that critically impact protein activity and function. To address this inherent complexity, a number of high throughput platforms for identifying and characterizing proteins have been developed, including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) protein identification methods, genetic readout experiments, such as the yeast two-hybrid assay, micro-array and chip technologies, and mass spectrometry methods.